Eight Great Tricks for Sounding Out Three Letter Words

 

In November, I posted a blog entry on teaching children to sound out CVC (Consonant-Vowel-Consonant) words.  And like most Kindergarten classes, we are still working on mastering that skill.  While most of my kids are doing fairly well with this, there are still a few little ones that are struggling to figure out how to blend sounds together.  These are mostly the younger ones with the fall birthdays, so it is really not their fault at all, poor babies!

But, the Common Core State Standards were written for everybody- no matter when their birthdays fall- and so I am responsible for teaching all of them to sound out CVC words.  It doesn’t matter if English is not their first language, or if they only just barely turned five years old at the end of November.  It doesn’t matter if on top of that they were born prematurely, or may have a learning disability, or have any number of other problems you can imagine.  It makes no difference if their parents are uninvolved in their schooling or if their attendance is poor.  (Thankfully, this describes very few of my students!)

None of those things matter, except that I am responsible to make sure that everyone meets all of the state standards, to the best of their ability and my ability to teach them.   So here are some of the things that we have been doing in our little after school tutoring group to help build up their phonemic awareness and therefore get them closer and closer to being able to sound out CVC words.

We practice sounding out words every day as whole group
on this pocket chart from ReallyGoodStuff.com
 

Phonemic awareness forms the foundation for language arts in general, but especially for sounding out words.  So when I have trouble getting kids to sound out words, I always remind myself to back up and see where they have fallen short on their journey to become readers.  All of the bricks (skills) in the foundation must be in place if they are going to be able to sound out words.  If they are having trouble, then there must be something missing.  So what is it?  I try to identify the gaps and see if I can fill them in.

Phonemic Awareness Skills Progression:
1.  Blending parts of compound words
(play + ground = playground)
2.  Blending initial sound to rest of word in longer words
(/m/ + arshmallow = marshmallow)
3.  Blending initial sound to rimes in shorter words
(/m/ + at = mat)
4.  Blending 3 phonemes/sounds in context
(“I like to /r/ + /u/ + /n/” =
“I like to run.”)
5.  Blending 3 phonemes
(out of context)
(/b/ + /a/ + /t/ = bat)

The natural progression after this step is that if a child knows the letter sounds, he would then be able to say the letter sounds him or herself and then sound out the words.  The activities below are based on this progression of phonemic awareness skills, and the idea that once they master each of the preliminary skills, they should then be able to sound out words- with a little practice, anyway! The only difference between these activities and any other phonemic awareness activities is that I am doing them with the very same sounds and words that I am trying to teach them to read, rather than any random sounds or words that I might pull out of the air.  This is VERY important!  For example, since I might be ultimately trying to teach them to read the word “fat,” I would work on blending just the /f/ and the /a/ sound in the first activity below.  Then, if I am also working on the word “sat,” then I would have them blend the sounds /s/ and /a/ in the first activity below, etc.

1.  Guess My Silly Sound
For this activity, I simply took any two sounds, such as /fffff/ and /aaaaa/ and said them out loud.  Then I called on a child to blend them together to make a funny sound, which in this case would be “fa.”  For some reason, my students this year find it easier to blend the words together if the vowel comes first and the consonant comes last.

2.  Guess My Secret Word

This is my CVC book.
You can also get it on a disc, which gets you
the printable CVC bingo games with it, too!
 

For this activity, I just took the CVC flash cards from the unit in my CVC book that we are working on at the moment and just read each child the sounds from each card.  I simply told each child the sounds of each word without showing them the letters, and asked them to blend the sounds together to make a word.  If they didn’t get it, I started giving them contextual clues.  For example, if the word was “dig,” then I might say, “This is something a naughty dog does in the garden.”   If the word was “pig,” I might say, “This is a farm animal that loves the mud.” I’ve attached a sample of the “at” word family flashcards from this set for you to try.

3.  Stretch Out the Word
The goal of this activity is to get the children to be aware of every sound in the word; (hence the term “phonemic awareness.”)  For this activity, I have the children put their hands up in front of them and show me how they are going to stretch out their words.  Then we pretend to stretch out some rubber, stretchy snakes as we pull the sounds of the words apart.  I say, “Say ‘fat.”  Sound ‘fat.”  Then the children begin to pull on their imaginary rubber snakes until we have isolated all of the sounds in the word.  After we have done this for a few words, then I pass out some REAL stretchy snakes, and let them try it with some real ones!  The kids LOVE this, and when we have stretched out our CVC words, I let them play with the rubbery snakes a little bit.

 

4.  Build the Word with “CVC Pockets

 

For this activity, I have the children take one of our new CVC pockets and pull the letters out of the envelope.  Then they have to try to put them in the correct order that they go in.  So for the word “lip,” we would not want to see the p coming first, etc.  They have to think about each sound and where it should go when putting it back together.  Then they have to try to read the word to me!

5.  Write the Word and Sound It Out By Pushing Up Chips
I learned this gem of a trick from my new friend, Janice Lawson, who is a retired Kindergarten teacher that has come to volunteer in my room one day a week!  I asked her if she would work with a couple of my students that were struggling with sounding out words, and she pulled out this activity from her bag of tricks that she used when she taught Kindergarten in Baldwin Park, CA.

This is Janice’s board for sounding out CVC words!
 

She said that she felt that it was important for the children to write the words that they were going to practice reading themselves, to help them better focus on the letters.  Then she asked me for some blocks or chips to use as markers, and had the children push them up as they said the sounds, one block at a time.  Then they pushed the blocks together and tried to blend the sounds together as they did it.  For my two lowest little ones, this really unlocked the secret of sounding out words!  She said that they needed the kinesthetic element to help them remember and focus on the sounds.  She also mentioned that the chips had to be something very boring, or the children (especially the boys!) would just play with them.  She usually used poker chips.

This is my paper and the blocks that I used to sound out words with the kids.
 

I was so excited to see that something was actually working for these two little students, because I had been trying absolutely everything I could think of, and getting practically no where!  So during after school tutoring, we tried it again!  I handed out white boards to the group and had them all write a word.  Then we put the blocks on the boards and pushed one block up on each letter for each sound as we said it.  Then we pushed the blocks together to sound out the word.  All of the children responded very well to this!  The only problem was that it resulted in an erased word on the white board!  So we put away the white boards and switched to paper and pencil and started over.  We did one word together, and then did a second word.  After our first word, we went back and read the first one again, using the blocks as before.  Then we did a third word, and went back and reread the first two words again with the blocks, etc.  We did several words, but each time we finished a word, we went back and reviewed the previous words.

This is what one of my student’s paper’s looked like.  You can see how difficult it was for them to get the words spaced out correctly and the letters written legibly.
 

At the end of the session, I asked the children to read the words to me individually, without the blocks.  All of them could do it, except for my two lowest children that I had my friend Janice work with.  So I got out the blocks and let them try it again with the blocks.  Guess what?  THEY DID IT!  I was THRILLED!  They have sounded out a few words for me before, but they have been mostly words that they have memorized- not truly sounded out.  So this is wonderful news!  Hats off to Janice and her great ideas!  I can’t wait to learn more from her!


I decided that to make this a little easier next time, I’m going to make up a printable with some blank boxes for the children to write their letters in.  I’m also going to number them, so that when I ask the children to read the first or second word, we all know which one to read!  The children were writing their words all over their papers and it was hard to keep them all on the same word at the same time.  Some of them also were making their letters too small and too close together for the blocks, and I think that putting one letter in each box will solve a lot of these problems.  If you would like a copy of this printable, click here.

 

Of course, the idea of pushing chips into boxes for each sound is not a new one; these boxes are known as Elkonin boxes.  But I have never thought of using them with letters inside of them; I have only thought of using them as blank place holders to represent a sound in a word.  In this case, the letters are written down, and the child moves the chip on top of the letter while saying the sound, so it is slightly different than the original idea of Elkonin boxes as I understand them.

6.  Read the Word and Match It to the Picture
Finally, I have the children try to read me the CVC word by sounding it out.  No guessing allowed-they MUST sound it out!  Then they come up to the pocket chart and find the picture that matches their word.

The pocket chart with flash cards from my CVC book.
 

7.  Reading CVC Nonsense Words
When the children get more proficient at this, I am definitely going to introduce them to the concept of reading nonsense words!  I know that, at the moment, they are trying to make sense of what they are reading, and that is good.  But I do think that in order to develop some good, solid phonics skills, they will need to be able to decode nonsense words.  This is because when a child attempts to decode a longer, multisyllabic word, each syllable inside of it is essentially a nonsense word- and that’s why nonsense words are important.  I use the Word Blending Pocket Chart pictured below from ReallyGoodStuff.com.

 
_________________________________________

(This last idea was added on an update to this blog on July 20, 2013).

8.  Sing and Move to Sound Blending Songs to Help the Musical & Kinesthetic Learner
We completed our Sound Blending Songs for Word Families DVD in Spring of 2013, and I have to say that using the songs as a teaching tool for my class made an incredible difference!   As the children sing the songs, they take themselves through the process of saying the letter sounds, stretching them out, and then blending them together to read the word.   They enjoy practicing this process because the songs are fun and active!  These songs really made a difference to some of my students that were struggling the most!

Sound Blending DVD-CD from HeidiSongs.com
Eight Tricks for CVC Words
 

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Heidi Butkus

About Heidi Butkus

Heidi Butkus has been teaching in California public schools since 1985. She has somehow managed to stay in Kindergarten all of those years, with the exception of five years in first grade, and also taught a parent participation preschool for a short while! Combining a strong knowledge of brain research with practical experience, Heidi has created a wealth of fun and engaging teaching techniques that work well with diverse populations. She has presented at conferences nationwide, and is the owner and founder of HeidiSongs.com. Heidi has also created fourteen original CD's and DVD's for teaching beginning reading and math skills, three musical plays designed especially for young performers, and has written some picture books and many other teaching resources. Heidi's multimedia workshops are filled with fun and motivational educational activities that have been classroom tested and revised for effectiveness with all types of learners.
  1. Heidi,

    This is an awesome post! Thanks for sharing the information. It is nice to have it broken down into steps with ideas to along with each step. Can't wait to use some of the ideas with my kids!

    Deanna

  2. Thank you for the ideas. I use similar activities to help my Kdgn Title I kiddos. Some of them have trouble hearing the beginning sound and/or leave it off when they blend the sounds together. Our K teachers use the boxes, only they color them: green (go) for the first sound, yellow for the middle sound, and red (stop) for the ending sound.

  3. Great post on ways to help with CVC words. Blending for some kiddos is so hard. I like the idea of the word written and pushing the blocks or ships to help with sounding out and blending. Thank you Heidi!

  4. We use the Elkonin boxes, but I really like the simplicity of this page. Thanks so much. I can't wait to use it, especially with my lower learners who are struggling with putting sounds together.

  5. Wow! Thanks for all the wonderful ideas…and for sharing. Do you have any great ideas for the poor little kiddos who can't remember the sight words? Just like in this post, I am responsible for teaching my barely 5 year olds… with no parent support…to recognize all these words that make no sense to them. Any ideas would be VERY welcome!

  6. This is exactly what I needed!!! I have just a few students who know all their sounds but have not been able to make the next jump to blending the sounds to read the words. We played your snowman game where the students blend sounds to read the word, then pick up the card to look for the hat. Of course all the kids LOVED the game but it was also a quick easy way to assess the students and determine who still was struggling with blending sounds. I also sent the game home with one of my students so they could "play" with their family. 🙂 Now I have some more ideas to try!
    Thank you for your wonderful ideas and activities.

  7. Thanks, just what I was lying awake last night thinking about for my RtI group. The worksheet with boxes will save me from making up one next week.
    Diane

  8. Thank you for all your suggestions!! I don't think there is enough information out there on how to actually approach teaching blending.

    In our district, when we teach blending, we don't have students say all 3 letter sounds in CVC words and then try to blend them. They don't have enough short term memory power in their young brains to get the whole word, so they end up guessing. We encourages students to stop after the vowel, blend the first two sounds, then go back and add the final sound to get the whole word. In fact, we use a book called Phonics Pathways that is very helpful in teaching reading. It has students start with the vowel sound, then it builds up to two letter CV nonsense words, then it adds on the final sound to make a CVC word. It also includes work with blends, which we don't focus on in K, but our 1st grade teachers use it. Eventually, students can read whole words without having to really sound them out at all.

  9. What can I say… thank you so much for the great ideas… I am excited to have some learning time with my 4 yrs old (soon to be 5 in April) using all your learning tools/ideas. He LOVES LOVES LOVES using your song! Making his learning time so FUN!

  10. To S:
    Yes, I have tried that method in the past! We went through that, doing just two sounds at a time. It's just that the struggling learners need a lot more time doing just that, I think. Probably a whole year of pre-K doing it, as a matter of fact- that would really make a big difference.
    Thanks for the tip, though!
    Heidi

  11. Heidi,
    What a great post! I teach pre-k and phonic awareness is a must in my class. I feel so lucky to work in a private presschool. I also work hard to get my kiddos ready for (you) Kindergarten teachers. I found this site while looking for p.a. ideas http://www.aability.com/pagames.php

    I use a lot of your music/dvds in my class and the children LOVE all of them. Thank you for having such a passion for teaching!!

  12. Heidi, I am so glad I found your blog (through pinterest). I'm an rti interventionist and the students I work with are struggling just like the ones you blogged about. Next week I'm going to start time letter id/sound practices and work from there – of course I'm going to try the memory test too and have each of their teachers do the same so we can compare our "unofficial" notes.

    Thanks again for such an awesome blog. I'm a new and faithful follower now!

    Connie

  13. Check at the target Dollar deals section. Starting in about July the have amazing deals for $1 and $2.50. I got a bunch of the tabletop pocket charts and they were $2.50. Love them for individual practice!

  14. To Joanie and all that left such nice comments:
    You are so welcome! I do love helping teachers teach these difficult subjects. Getting kids started down these paths is just NOT an easy task, is it?
    🙂
    Heidi

  15. I am a Kdgn Title I teacher. I've read this post several times and have used the wonderful ideas to help my kiddos blend sounds. At this point in the school year, most are doing great sounding out words. However, I have 2 who can say the individual sounds in CVC words, but cannot blend them together to make the word. I have tried many things(including things in this post), but they struggle with putting the sounds into a word. Doing word families makes things worse for them; that really confuses them. Do you have anymore suggestions on how to help them? Thanks! Love your blog!!

  16. To Lee Ann,
    Well, one other thing that I have been doing is sending home RAN boards with all of the children and making daily practice in sounding out words a required part of their homework. The parents are supposed to fill out a log with the date each time they practice sounding out words with their child. I think that this has made a real difference to some of my lowest ones that were struggling so terribly, because they FINALLY have gotten past that problem. But if the children cannot hold the sounds in short term memory long enough to blend them together, then you have another problem entirely!
    Have you considered referring these children to your Student Study Team for evaluation? Sound like their may be an issue to explore.
    Good luck!
    Heidi

  17. Thanks so much. I think these kiddos do have some issues that will definitely come up as they get older. As a Title I teacher, I am not able to refer them to RTI, only the classroom teacher can, and she doesn't see it as a problem. I will keep working with them with the 15 days I have left with them.
    Thank you again for your help.

  18. OK, I just spent the last hour reading your blog and being amazed by the incredible ideas you have! WOW! Wish I'd found you years ago! 🙂 Thank you for your insight, creativity and expertise. You are a gift–I can only imagine how lucky your kids are!!

  19. Thank you so much for generously sharing your experience for free. You will change the lives of so many Reception Teachers and little children – the most vulnerable ones in particular. I’ve emailed a list of your ideas around our staff team tonight and can’t wait to try them out. Although a phonics fanatic and literacy coordinator in England, I wasn’t aware of the phonic skill progression and the importance of an auditory memory is fascinating! Thank you!

  20. Pingback: Helping Kids That GUESS Rather Than Decode | Heidi Songs

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